Coffee Breeding- Summary & Contents

Summary – Coffee Breeding (A. Santa Ram, 2009)

Coffee is a perennial crop of great significance to the many third world countries that produce this stimulating beverage crop. Arabica and Robusta are the two species of the genus Coffea that provide the consumed coffee. These commercially important plant species are ravaged by diseases and pests that have to be managed and kept to sub-threshold levels to obtain a sustainable livelihood. Breeding to evolve resistant plant materials comprises the first step in managing these adversaries. The book “Coffee Breeding” reviews the existing knowledge on the subject of plant breeding as applied to coffee, summarises the recent advances and presents models for future breeding exercises. The content of the book is presented in three major chapters as follows.

I. The Coffee Plant
II. Coffee Breeding
III. The Future Outlook

The first chapter, “The Coffee Plant” presents details of history of the spread of cultivation of this important beverage crop, the beginnings of research in various countries, reviews knowledge of the taxonomy, physiology, available genetic resources and variability that is the feedstock of breeding exercises, summarises the crop husbandry practices to manage weeds, pests and diseases, reviews knowledge on harvest and processing and culminates in a summary of quality aspects and coffee trade.

The second chapter “Coffee Breeding” begins with a section on the available genetic resources and evaluation of genetic variability providing a detailed insight into the finer aspects of genetic variability and polymorphism and ways and means of utilizing it to evolve the best possible out puts. Reproductive biology of Arabica and Robusta coffees is widely different and thus are dealt in different sections of this chapter.

The section on “Breeding Coffea arabica L.” reviews all available knowledge on the evolution of this species that has important bearing on breeding for various traits of interest and the importance of interspecific hybrids in breeding. The section, breeding for leaf rust resistance provides a deep insight into the variability in the rust fungus as well as the host and physiological specialization of both that leads to an understanding of the types and sources of resistance and the ways and means of utilizing it to the best advantage. This section also provides an insight into the mechanisms of segregation in the progenies and varieties derived from the ancestry of Hibrido de Timor that is extensively utilized as a source of rust resistance genes in the world coffee breeding programmes. Another interesting detail presented in this section is on “Ligenioides”, an amphidiploid of C. liberica and C. eugenioides that crosses well with a variety of Arabicas to yield fertile hybrids. Work done in India on the hybrids of Ligenioides and Hibrido de Timor indicates that this amphiploid could be a new source of genes for breeding Arabica coffee. Mention is made of other similar interspecific hybrids that could be a source of resistance genes for diseases like CBD and the possible use of them in breeding.

This section culminates with a sub-section reviewing the breeding programmes of different coffee producing countries and breeding for resistance to other diseases, yield, productivity and quality.

The section on “Breeding Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner”, summarises knowledge of the origin and evolution of cultivated robustas, the self-incompatibility system and related polymorphic genetic structure of the species and its importance in breeding. While yield enhancement was considered the single most important objective of value for Robusta breeding, the other aspects like leaf rust resistance, resistance to tracheomycosis and anthracnose were also reviewed and their importance stressed. Robusta generally manifests a high level of tolerance to pests, but there are specific pests like leaf miner, branch borer and berry borer to which resistance is present in C. racemosa, C.liberica etc. and strategies for transfer are suggested. The quality aspects of robusta breeding terminate the chapter.

The third chapter, “Outlook for the Future” reviews conventional breeding strategies and suggests improvements for the future for Arabica and Robusta separately. The fact that C. arabica is capable of assimilating genes from a many of diploid species and express them has tremendous implications for breeding this important species to evolve disease and pest resistant planting stocks. It is suggested that evolution of C. arabica should be given due importance in the long term breeding exercises. Gene pyramiding leading to multiple resistance and heterosis breeding integrating all the above elements is suggested to achieve positive sustainable productivity. Biotechnological approaches were briefly reviewed and it is apparent that the integration of these elements in breeding may take considerable time.

A review of the breeding strategies in practice for Robusta is presented and the new approaches reciprocal recurrent selection, haplo-diploid hybridization and interspecific hybridization are suggested to obtain value and productivity for this species.

Coffee Breeding – A. Santa Ram



The Coffee Plant
1.1. History
1.1.1. Origin and Spread
1.1.2. Folk Selections
1.1.3. Organized Research on Coffee
1.1.4. Taxonomy
1.2. Plant Improvement
1.2.1. Coffee Germplasm
1.2.2. Breeding
1.2.3. Resistance to Leaf Rust
1.3. Physiology
1.3.1. Photosynthesis
1.3.2. Photoperiodism and Flowering
1.3.3. Metabolism
1.4. Crop Management
1.4.1. Soil and Climate
1.4.2. Seed Selection
1.4.3. Seed bed – Nursery
1.4.4. Planting and After-care
1.4.5. Shade Management
1.4.6. Weed Control
1.4.7. Soil Conservation
1.4.8. Fertilizer Response
1.4.9. Pruning and Training
1.5. Pests of Coffee
1.5.1. Nursery Pests
1.5.2. Plantation Pests
1.5.3. Pest Control
1.6. Diseases of Coffee
1.6.1. Disease Control
1.6.2. Disease Resistance
1.7. Harvesting and Processing
1.7.1. The Dry Processing Method
1.7.2. The Wet Processing Method
1.7.3. Coffee Curing
1.7.4. Grading
1.8. The Coffee Industry
1.8.1. International Coffee Agreement

Coffee Breeding
2.1. Coffee Genetic Resources
2.2. Evaluation of Genetic Variability
2.2.1. Survey and Collection
2.2.2. Morphological Characters
2.2.3. Karyotype
2.2.4. Self-Incompatibility
2.2.5. Genetic and Cytogenetic Polymorphism
2.2.6. Isozyme Polymorphism
2.2.7. DNA Polymorphism
2.3. Coffee Plant Improvement
2.3.1. Breeding Coffea arabica L. (Arabica) Evolution of Coffea Arabica Interspecific Hybrids Breeding Arabica for Leaf Rust Resistance Variability in the Rust Fungus – Physiological Specialization Mechanism of New Race Formation Types and Sources of Resistance Reistance Genes of Coffea arabica and Coffee Differentials Inheritance of Resistance Genes Breeding Programmes
2.3.2. Breeding Coffea arabica for CBD Resistance Resistance to CBD in Coffea Arabica Breeding Programmes – CBD Resistance
2.3.3. Breeding Arabica coffee for Resistance to Other Diseases
2.3.4. Breeding Coffea arabica for Yield and Productivity
2.3.5. Breeding Coffea arabica for Quality
2.4. Breeding Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta)
2.4.1. Origin and Evolution of Cultivated Robustas
2.4.2. Recent Prospecting for Wild Robustas
2.4.3. Robusta Working Collections
2.4.4. Self-incompatibility, Polymorphism and Genetic Structure
2.4.5. Breeding Robusta Coffee for Yield
2.4.6. Breeding Robusta for Disease Resistance
2.4.7. Breeding Robusta for Resistance to Pests
2.4.8. Breeding Robusta for Quality

Outlook for the Future
3.1. Breeding Strategies for Arabica
3.1.1 Conventional Strategies
3.1.2 Future Strategies
3.2. Breeding Strategies for Robusta
3.2.1. Conventional Strategies
3.2.2. Modern Strategies



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